The agroecological movement in Brazil started with critiques of the impacts of agricultural systems based on the Green Revolution. The value of yield losses caused by insects is around 1.6 billion dollars annually 5 Chemical insecticides, applied mainly to control fruit flies and moths, still represent the primary form of control in the Serra Gaścha dedetizadora de cupim Region, although recent progress has been achieved by alternative pest-control technologies, such as the use of pheromones, toxic baits and mass trapping 6 , 7 , 8 Chemical control through insecticides is often ineffective and it may have an indirect effect on non-target pests, mainly due to its negative impact on natural enemy populations.
In Brazil, although P. minor has not been recorded on Citrus spp., it has been recorded on plants in this genus in other regions of the world ( Garcia Morales et al. 2016 ). Thus, information related to the occurrence of P. citri should be reviewed at the molecular level.
Considering the damage caused by terrestrial gastropods in strawberry producing areas in southern Brazil, this study aimed to i) identify the species associated with Fragaria x ananassa in rural properties in municipalities of Parana State, Brazil; ii) describe and illustrate the diagnostic morphological and conchology features of the mollusk species; iii) construct an illustrated key based on these morphological and conchology features; iv) analyze two species collected in March 2017 to investigate the possible occurrence of parasitic nematodes of medical importance.
Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) are important agricultural pests that can develop on fruits, leaves, branches, trunk and roots, infesting a range of host plants such as vineyards and fruit orchards 9 , 10 The diversity of scale insect species is high, with 148 species recorded on grapevines, 69 on persimmon trees, 28 on strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne) and 26 on apple trees 11 Most adult females and nymphs extract large amounts of phloem sap while excreting the excess of water and sugar as honeydew 12 , 13 This sugary substance then falls on leaves and fruits, serving as a substrate for the development of sooty mold fungi.
When B. trigonica reproduction was evaluated on different hosts over 14 days, the psyllids laid no eggs on tomato plants and much fewer eggs on potato (five eggs in three couples) than on carrots (average of 235.1 ± 40.81) and the few ecloded nymphs on potato died during the first instar.
Even though Brazilian honey production is elevated, it could be greater if farmland was more efficiently managed in consort with beekeeping, since Brazil still has an extensive agricultural area that is both underused and little explored by both beekeepers and farmers.
The state of Rio Grande do Sul produces 63% of all rice in Brazil 56 The association between rice paddy workers and leptospirosis has already been described in the literature 6 , 57 Working conditions in rice fields have been studied in Peru and results highlight occupational hazards linked to leptospirosis infection, such as long period of exposure to water, lack of use of any personal protection equipment, and presence of skin wounds 57 It is very important to raise awareness about the risk of this disease in critical areas and promote personal protection equipment (PPE).
Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) colonize all vegetative organs of vine plants but are not easily found due to their cryptic habits, living under the bark, on the abaxial leaf surface, inside the bunches, occasionally on berries, and, depending on soil texture, in the roots ( Godfrey et al., 2005; Becerra et al., 2006 ). When located, mealybugs are readily recognized by the presence of powdered wax deposited on the surface of the body and, in some species, by the presence of white waxy filaments distributed in the margins ( Cox and Pearce, 1983 ).
The Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul ranks fifth in the incidence rate (4.7 cases per 10,000 population) and presents around 15% of the total number of cases in the country 31 In a previous study conducted to identify high transmission areas and possible ecological components of leptospirosis transmission in Rio Grande do Sul, the highest incidence rates were found in the coastal sedimentary areas with low altitude and predominantly agricultural land use in the central valley 32 The state economy is based on agribusiness, including cattle and rice paddies, with an associated increased risk of leptospirosis in some areas that needs to be evaluated.